Composite materials are amazing. Enabling structures to be lighter, stronger, corrosion resistant, increased durability and have more complex geometry. Having been established over the past 60 years, first in the marine industry, then aerospace, it is now common place to find composite components in automotive, construction and renewable energy industries.
Most people are aware of advanced composite aeroplanes and boats, but the potential applications for composites is almost endless.. GRP (glass reinforced plastic) flat or apex roofing systems for example, are extremely cost effective, durable, waterproof, fireproof if required, lightweight yet strong with a range of finishes (colours and textures) and the potential to last 50 years +. The lightweight aspect of composites has multiple beneficial implications which can be exploited during the design spiral. Using the GRP roof example - the reduction in weight from battens, felt and slates would mean smaller roof beams are required, lighter wall supports and so on.. resulting in a reasonable overall weight saving which in turn means the building requires smaller foundations (less digging).. All these reductions = cost reductions!
Rees Advance Marine has been involved in multiple GRP roofing system development and installation projects, both at sea and on land, which have resulted in very cost effective high quality solutions.
When two or more different materials are combined, the result is a composite. The first uses of composites date back to the 1500 B.C. when early Egyptians and Mesopotamian settlers used a mixture of mud and straw to create strong and durable buildings. Straw continued to provide reinforcement to ancient composite products including pottery and boats.
Later, in 1200 AD, the Mongols invented the first composite bow.
Using a combination of wood, bone, and “animal glue,” bows were pressed and wrapped with birch bark. These bows were powerful and accurate. Composite Mongolian bows helped to ensure Genghis Khan's military dominance.
The modern era of composites began when scientists developed plastics. Until then, natural resins derived from plants and animals were the only source of glues and binders. In the early 1900s, plastics such as vinyl, polystyrene, phenolic, and polyester were developed. These new synthetic materials outperformed single resins derived from nature.
However, plastics alone could not provide enough strength for some structural applications. Reinforcement was needed to provide additional strength and rigidity.
In 1935, Owens Corning introduced the first glass fibre, fiberglass. Fiberglass when combined with a plastic polymer created an incredibly strong structure that is also lightweight.
This is the beginning of the Fibre Reinforced Polymer / Plastic (FRP) industry.
Note: GRP refers to specifically - Glass - reinforced plastic / polymer.
Many of the greatest advancements in composites were the result of wartime needs. Just as the Mongols developed the composite bow, World War II brought the FRP industry from the laboratory into actual production.
Alternative materials were needed for lightweight applications in military aircraft. Engineers soon realized other benefits of composites beyond being lightweight and strong. It was discovered, for example, that fiberglass composites were transparent to radio frequencies, and the material was soon adapted for use in sheltering electronic radar equipment (Radomes).
By the end of the WWII, a small niche composites industry was in full swing. With lower demand for military products, the few composites innovators were now ambitiously trying to introduce composites into other markets. Boats were one obvious product that benefited. The first composite commercial boat hull was introduced in 1946.
At this time Brandt Goldsworthy often referred to as the “grandfather of composites,” developed many new manufacturing processes and products, including the first fiberglass surfboard, which revolutionized the sport.
Goldsworthy also invented a manufacturing process known as pultrusion, a process that allows dependably strong fiberglass reinforced products. Today, products manufactured from this process include ladder rails, tool handles, pipes, arrow shafts, armour, train floors and medical devices.
In the 1970s the composites industry began to mature. Better plastic resins and improved reinforcing fibres were developed. DuPont developed an aramid fibre known as Kevlar, which has become the product of choice in body armour due to its high tensile strength, high density, and light weight. Carbon fibre was also developed around this time; increasingly, it has replaced parts formerly made of steel, including many aerospace, automotive and even prosthetic applications.
The composites industry is still evolving, with much of the growth now focused around renewable energy. Wind turbine blades (now up to 90m in length), especially, are constantly pushing the limits on size and require advanced composite materials.
Composite materials research continues.. Composite applications in medical science, space exploration and progressively in all areas of technology. Areas of particular interest are currently nanomaterials - materials with extremely small molecular structures -, natural fibres, self healing resins and bio-based polymers.